EPoS Contribution
EPoS Contribution
PFO-CFO Theory: the early phase of star formation

Victor Ostrovskii
NIFHI, Moscow, RU
The widely distributed concept of the mechanism of star formation represents a development of G. Gamov's notion of big bang with the subsequent origin of an expanding Space, nebula, etc. In turn, Gamov's work bears on V. de Sitter - H. Weyl's and A. Fridman's conclusions on Universe expansion from an "infinitely solid point" and their conclusions bear on A. Einstein's General Relativity Theory (GR). Meanwhile, according to the GR, light propagates over Space in straight lines and with the constant speed and, thus, if these two assumptions are erroneous, the GR can't be applied to Universe and, therefore, the notion of big bang has no grounds, because no other ground for Gamov's theory occurs. However, it is well known that light interacts with gravitation fields (GFs) and deviates in them from straight lines. Apparently, there are no doubts that each stellar system has its own gravitational potential (GP) and each galaxy has its own mean GP. Mathematically, it is possible to take approximately that the GFs are localized and this approximation was made by Einstein. However, physically, GFs are infinite. Thus, Space is under an effect of a sum of more or less weak GFs and, apparently, is gravitationally heterogeneous. If so, light should propagate over Space in nonstraight lines and with nonconstant linear speeds. Indeed, the GFs are weak over the major portion of Space; however, the distances are great and the total effects of gravitation may be significant. Thus, Gamov's reasoning goes to pieces. A number of other objections against the notion of big bang and of its consequences exist, among which the following ones but not only they are. (1) The first one is the singularity. Gamov's big bang can be qualified as the squared absurdity, because he added to Fridman's physically null-and-void "infinitely solid" initial state of Universe that it was also "infinitely hot". Meanwhile, high temperature is incompatible with the absence of chaos and, as follows from quantum mechanics, no particle is capable of being housed within a space smaller than its wavelength. (2) The problem of dark matter exists for about 70 years; from time to time, information on candidates to it becomes available, but things are still where they started. (3) Origin of the elements from Fe to U is, as it is pointed in the recent USA Nat. Res. Council Report, one of the urgent problems of science. (4) The nature and origin, structure and density of Bok-globules and extremely cold Space around them are not explained for more than 70 years. (5) The red dwarfs are one more mystery; they don't fall into the today notions, because their surrounding should contain metals but no metals are observable. (6) Recently, S. Hawking, "father" and advocate of black holes, wrote that "there are no black holes - in the sense of regimes from which light can't escape to infinity," and "...the black holes should be redefined as metastable ground states of the gravitational field". E. Rutherford thought in the pre-thermonuclear epoch that the stellar energy is supported by radiochemical transformations of the stellar substance. This assumption was rejected, because of the opinion that the energy should be quickly exhausted. However, the possibility of the multiple alternate recurrent emissions and absorptions of energy, i.e., of cooling and heating of a star (and of its planet system if it was formed) with an intermediate transformation of a portion of the stellar substance in direct and back directions, wasn't taken into consideration. Such a concept was developed by us in the context of the PFO-CFO Theory, and we will present it and its conclusions for discussion at the Conference. The PFO-CFO Theory bears on the Special Relativity Theory and develops it; we proceed from the notion of infinite and eternal oscillating Space of mass/energy as of the material for finite Universe within it. The Theory gives new explanations for all above-mentioned and many other observable celestial phenomena and processes. It doesn't contain notions of big bang, dark matter and energy, and black holes. The Theory covers the period from Beginning to the today state of the Sun and Solar System and forecasts the future of the Sun up to explosion of its radiation zone. This presentation covers a portion of this period from Beginning up to formation of stars.
E.A. Kadyshevich, IAP RAS, RU
Key publication

Suggested Session: Chemistry