Protostars and Planets VI, Heidelberg, July 15-20, 2013

Poster 1B036

Physical properties of high-mass star-forming clumps in different evolutionary stages from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey

Svoboda, Brian (Steward Observatory)
Shirley, Yancy (Steward Observatory)
Rosolowsky, Erik (University of Alberta)
Dunham, Miranda (Yale University)
Ellsworth-Bowers, Timothy (University of Colorado)
Ginsburg, Adam (University of Colorado)

High mass stars play a key role in the physical and chemical evolution of the interstellar medium, yet the evolutionary sequence for high mass star forming regions is poorly understood. Recent Galactic plane surveys are providing the first systematic view of high-mass star-forming regions in all evolutionary phases across the Milky Way. We present observations of the 22.23 GHz H2O maser transition J(Ka,Kc) = 6(1,6)→5(2,3) transition toward 1398 clumps identified in the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey using the 100m Green Bank Telescope (GBT). We detect 392 H2O masers, 279 (71%) newly discovered. We show that H2O masers can identify the presence of protostars which were not previously identified by Spitzer/MSX Galactic plane IR surveys: 25% of IR-dark clumps have an H2O maser. We compare the physical properties of the clumps in the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) with observations of diagnostics of star formation activity: 8 and 24 um YSO candidates, H2O and CH3OH masers, shocked H2, EGOs, and UCHII regions. We identify a sub-sample of 400 clumps with no star formation indicators representing the largest and most robust sample of pre-protocluster candidates from an unbiased survey to date. The different evolutionary stages show strong separations in HCO+ linewidth and integrated intensity, surface mass density, and kinetic temperature. Monte Carlo techniques are applied to distance probability distribution functions (DPDFs) in order to marginalize over the kinematic distance ambiguity and calculate the distribution of derived quantities for clumps in different evolutionary stages. Surface area and dust mass show weak separations above > 2 pc^2 and > 3x10^3 solar masses. An observed breakdown occurs in the size-linewidth relationship with no differentiation by evolutionary stage. Future work includes adding evolutionary indicators (MIPSGAL, HiGal, MMB) and expanding DPDF priors (HI self-absorption, Galactic structure) for more well-resolved KDAs.

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